Pakistan

Pakistan (Listeni/ˈpækᵻstæn/ or Listeni/pɑːkᵻˈstɑːn/), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia.

It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 201 million people.

It is the 36th largest country in the world in terms of area with an area covering 881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan is considered a cradle of civilization which was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander of Macedonia, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire.

Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries as it is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam.
As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of the Subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic.
A civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.

Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories.
It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife.
A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, being the only nation in the Muslim world, and the second in South Asia, to have that status. It has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector, its economy is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP and is also characterized among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world.

The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighbouring India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Despite these factors it maintains strategic endowments and development potential while it has made substantial progress in reducing poverty giving it the second lowest headcount poverty rate in South Asia.[30] The nation has recently witnessed a rapid expansion of its prosperous middle class, the 18th largest worldwide. Pakistan's stock exchange is Asia's highest performing stock market and, as of 2016, is part of the MSCI's emerging markets index. It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Next Eleven Economies, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ECO, UfC, D8, Cairns Group, Kyoto Protocol, ICCPR, RCD, UNCHR, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Group of Eleven, CPFTA, Group of 24, the G20 developing nations, ECOSOC, founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, SAARC and CERN.


Etymology
The name Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure" in Urdu and Persian.
It comes from the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto while the word istān is a Persian word meaning place of; it is a cognate of the Sanskrit word sthāna (Devanagari: स्थान [st̪ʰaːnə]).

It was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the British Raj: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan.
The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name.


Government and politics

Parliament House
Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic with Islam as the state religion.
The first set was adopted in 1956 but suspended by Ayub Khan in 1958 who replaced it with the second set in 1962.
Complete and comprehensive Constitution was adopted in 1973—suspended by Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 but reinstated in 1985—is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government.

The Pakistani military establishment has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's political history.
There were military coups which resulted in imposition of martial law and military commanders continued governing as de-facto presidents from 1958–1971, 1977–1988, and 1999–2008.
As of now, Pakistan has a multi-party parliamentary system with clear division of powers and responsibilities between branches of government.
The first successful demonstrative transaction was held in May 2013. Politics in Pakistan is centered and dominated by the homegrown conceive social philosophy, consisting the ideas of socialism, conservatism, and the third way. As of the general elections held in 2013, the three main dominated political parties in the country: the centre-right conservative Pakistan Muslim League-N (PML-N); the centre-left socialist Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP); and the centrist and third-way Pakistan Movement for Justice (PTI) led by cricketer Imran Khan.

A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises four provinces: Punjab, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Balochistan. and four territories: the Tribal belt, Gilgit–Baltistan, Islamabad Capital Territory, and Kashmir. The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions, which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas).
In 2009, the constitutional assignment (the Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order) awarded the Gilgit–Baltistan a semi-provincial status, giving it self-government.

The local government system consists of a three-tier system of districts, tehsils and union councils, with an elected body at each tier.
There are about 130 districts altogether, of which Azad Kashmir has ten and Gilgit–Baltistan seven.
The Tribal Areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts.

Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory.
The National Intelligence Directorate coordinates the information intelligence at both federal and provincial level; including the FIA, IB, Motorway Police, and paramilitary forces such as the Pakistan Rangers and the Frontier Corps.

Pakistan's "premier" intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligene (ISI), was formed just within a year after the Independence of Pakistan in 1947.
Inter Service Intelligence Agency of Pakistan was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the world in 2011, 2014 and 2015.

The court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts, Federal Shariat Courts (one in each province and one in the federal capital), District Courts (one in each district), Judicial Magistrate Courts (in every town and city), Executive Magistrate Courts and civil courts.
The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs.


Geography, environment and climate

The geography and climate of Pakistan are extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife.
Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 km2 (307,374 sq mi), approximately equal to the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom.
It is the 36th largest nation by total area, although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted.
Pakistan has a 1,046 km (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and land borders of 6,774 km (4,209 mi) in total: 2,430 km (1,510 mi) with Afghanistan, 523 km (325 mi) with China, 2,912 km (1,809 mi) with India and 909 km (565 mi) with Iran.It shares a marine border with Oman, and is separated from Tajikistan by the cold, narrow Wakhan Corridor.
Pakistan occupies a geopolitically important location at the crossroads of South Asia, the Middle East and Central Asia.

Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone and overlaps the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the Eurasian plate, mainly on the Iranian plateau. Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes. This region has the highest rates of seismicity and largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region.[238] Ranging from the coastal areas of the south to the glaciated mountains of the north, Pakistan's landscapes vary from plains to deserts, forests, hills and plateaus.

Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain and the Balochistan Plateau.
The northern highlands contain the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges, which contain some of the world's highest peaks, including five of the fourteen eight-thousanders (mountain peaks over 8,000 metres or 26,250 feet), which attract adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world, notably K2 (8,611 m or 28,251 ft) and Nanga Parbat (8,126 m or 26,660 ft).
The Balochistan Plateau lies in the west and the Thar Desert in the east. The 1,609 km (1,000 mi) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea. There is an expanse of alluvial plains along it in Punjab and Sindh.

The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. There is a monsoon season with frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all.
There are four distinct seasons: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November.
Rainfall varies greatly from year to year, and patterns of alternate flooding and drought are common.


Economy Overview

Karachi, is the largest city of Pakistan.

Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan.
Economists estimate that Pakistan has been part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE having the largest economy by GDP.
This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions edged forward such as China and Western Europe.
Pakistan is considered as a developing country and is one of the Next Eleven, the eleven countries that, along with the BRICs, have a high potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. However, after decades of social instability, as of 2013, serious deficiencies in macromangament and unbalanced macroeconomics in basic services such as train transportation and electrical energy generation had developed.

The economy is considered to be semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus River. The diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centres coexist with less developed areas in other parts of the country particularly in Balochistan.

Pakistan is the 70th largest export economy in the world and the 89th most complex economy according to the Economic complexity index (ECI).
In 2013, Pakistan exported $28.2B and imported $44.8B, resulting in a negative trade balance of $16.6B.

Pakistan's estimated nominal GDP as of 2016 is US$271 billion making it the 41st largest in the world and second largest in South Asia representing about 15.0% of regional GDP.

The GDP by PPP is US$838,164 million. The estimated nominal per capita GDP is US$1,197, GDP (PPP)/capita is US$4,602 (international dollars), and debt-to-GDP ratio is 55.5%.

According to the World Bank, Pakistan has important strategic endowments and development potential. The increasing proportion of Pakistan's youth provides the country with a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate services and employment. 21.04% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. Unemployment rate among aged 15 and over population is 5.5%. Pakistan has an estimated of 40 million middle class citizens which are projected to increase to 100 million people by 2050.
A 2013 report published by the World Bank positioned Pakistan's economy at 24th largest in the world by purchasing power and 45th largest in absolute dollars.
It is South Asia's second largest economy, representing about 15.0% of regional GDP.

Pakistan's economic growth since its inception has been varied. It has been slow during periods of democratic transition, but excellent during the three periods of martial law, although the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed. The early to middle 2000s was a period of rapid economic reforms; the government raised development spending, which reduced poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%. The economy cooled again from 2007. Inflation reached 25.0% in 2008 and Pakistan had to depend on a fiscal policy backed by the International Monetary Fund to avoid possible bankruptcy.
A year later, the Asian Development Bank reported that Pakistan's economic crisis was easing.
The inflation rate for the fiscal year 2010–11 was 14.1%.

Since 2013, as part of an International Monetary Fund program Pakistan's economic growth has picked up. Goldman Sachs predicted, in 2014, that Pakistan's economy would grow 15 times in the next 35 years to become 18th largest economy in the world by 2050.
On January 2014, a survey conducted by the Japan External Trade Organization placed Pakistan just behind Taiwan in terms of business generated by Japanese companies.
Pakistan's data was generated from 27 Japanese firms doing business here. The results found that 74.1% of the Japanese companies estimated operating profit in 2013.

A Pakistani textile market. Pakistan has the third largest spinning capacity in Asia.

The Pakistan Stock Exchange, one of the top-performing stock markets in the world in 2014.
Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its labour market is the 10th largest in the world.

The 7-million–strong Pakistani diaspora contributed an estimated US$15 billion to the economy in 2014–15.

The major source countries of remittances to Pakistan are: the UAE; United States; Saudi Arabia; the Gulf states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman); Australia; Canada; Japan; United Kingdom; Norway; and Switzerland.

According to the World Trade Organization, Pakistan's share of overall world exports is declining; it contributed only 0.128% in 2007.
The trade deficit in the fiscal year 2010–11 was US$11.217 billion


Education

Government College University is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan as well as one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the Muslim world.
The Constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education.
At the time of establishment of Pakistan as state, the country had only one university, the Punjab University in Lahore.
On immediate basis, the Pakistan government established public universities in each four provinices including the Sindh University (1949), Peshawar University (1950), Karachi University (1953), and Balochistan University (1970). Pakistan has a large network of both public and private universities; a collaboration of public-private universities to provide research and higher education in the country, although there is concern about the low quality of teaching in many of the newer schools. It is estimated that there are 3193 technical and vocational institutions in Pakistan, and there are also madrassahs that provide free Islamic education and offer free board and lodging to students, who come mainly from the poorer strata of society. 

Education in Pakistan is divided into six main levels: nursery (preparatory classes); primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); matriculation (grades nine and ten, leading to the secondary certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a higher secondary certificate); and university programmes leading to graduate and postgraduate programs.[381] Network of Pakistani private schools also operate a parallel secondary education system based on the curriculum set and administered by the Cambridge International Examinations of the United Kingdom. Some students choose to take the O-level and A level exams conducted by the British Council.
According to the International Schools Consultancy, Pakistan has 439 international schools.

Initiatives taken in 2007, the English medium education has been made compulsory to all schools across the country.
Additional reforms taken in 2013, all educational institutions in Sindh began instructions in Chinese language courses, reflecting China's growing role as a superpower and increasing influence in Pakistan. The literacy rate of the population is ~58 %. Male literacy is ~70.2% while female literacy rate is 46.3%. Literacy rates vary by region and particularly by sex; for instance, female literacy in tribal areas is 3.0%. With the launch of the computer literacy in 1995, the government launched a nationwide initiative in 1998 with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children. Through various educational reforms, by 2015 the MoEd expects to attain 100.00% enrollment levels among children of primary school age and a literacy rate of ~86% among people aged over 10.

After earning their HSC, students may study in a professional college or the university for bachelorate program courses such as science and engineering (BEng, BS/BSc, BTech) surgery and medicine (MBBS, MD), dentistry (BDS), veterinary medicine (DVM), criminal justice and law (LLB, LLM, JD), architecture (BArch), pharmacy (Pharm D.) and nursing (BNurs). Students can also attend a university for a bachelorate degree for business administration, literature, and management including the BA, BCom, BBA, and MBA programs. The higher education mainly supervises by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) that sets out the policies and issues rankings of the nationwide universities. In October 2014, education activist Malala Yousafzai became by far the youngest ever person in the world to receive the Nobel peace prize.

 

Water supply and sanitation
Despite high population growth the country has increased the share of the population with access to an improved water source from 85% in 1990 to 92% in 2010, although this does not necessarily mean that the water from these sources is safe to drink. The share with access to improved sanitation increased from 27% to 48% during the same period, according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. There has also been considerable innovation at the grass-root level, in particular concerning sanitation. The Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi and community-led total sanitation in rural areas are two examples of such innovation.

However, the sector still faces major challenges. The quality of the services is poor, as evidenced by intermittent water supply in urban areas and limited wastewater treatment. Poor drinking water quality and sanitation lead to major outbreaks of waterborne diseases.[396] major outbreaks of waterborne diseases swept the cities of Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar in 2006.
Estimates indicate that each year, more than three million Pakistanis become infected with waterborne diseases.
In addition, many service providers do not even cover the costs of and maintenance due to low tariffs and poor efficiency.
Consequently, the service providers strongly depend on government subsidies and external funding.
A National Sanitation Policy and a National Drinking Water Policy have been approved in 2006 and 2009 respectively with the objective to improve water and sanitation coverage and quality.

However, the level of annual investment (US$4/capita) still remains much below what would be necessary to achieve a significant increase in access and service quality.


Demographics
Kalash people maintain a unique identity and religion within Pakistan.
As per United States Census Bureau estimates the country's population is at 199,085,847 (199.1 million) as of 2015, which is equivalent to 2.57% of the world population.[402] Noted as the sixth most populated country in the world, its growth rate is reported at ~2.03%, which is the highest of the SAARC nations and gives an annual increase of 3.6 million. The population is projected to reach 210.13 million by 2020 and to double by 2045.

At the time of the partition in 1947, Pakistan had a population of 32.5 million, but the population increased by ~57.2% between the years 1990 and 2009.
By 2030, it is expected to surpass Indonesia as the largest Muslim-majority country in the world.
Pakistan is classified as a "young nation" with a median age of about 22, and 104 million people under the age of 30 in 2010.
Pakistan's fertility rate stands at 3.07, higher than its neighbor India (2.57). Around 35% of the people are under 15.

Vast majority residing in Southern Pakistan lives along the Indus River, with Karachi being its most populous commercial city.
In the eastern, western, and Northern Pakistan, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan and Peshawar.[128] During 1990–2008, the city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia which further increased to 38% by 2013.
Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.


Culture and society
Truck art in Pakistan is a unique feature of Pakistani culture.
Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical, emphasising local cultural etiquettes and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life.
The basic family unit is the extended family, although there has been a growing trend towards nuclear families for socio-economic reasons.
The traditional dress for both men and women is the Shalwar Kameez; trousers, Jeans, and shirts are also popular among men.
The middle class has increased to around 35 million and the upper and upper-middle classes to around 17 million in recent decades, and power is shifting from rural landowners to the urbanised elites.[449] Pakistani festivals such as Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Ramazan, Christmas, Easter, Holi, and Diwali are mostly religious in origin.

Increasing globalisation has resulted in Pakistan ranking 56th on the A.T. Kearney/FP Globalization Index.


Sports
The majority of the sports played in Pakistan are originated and were substantially developed from the United Kingdom who introduced in the British India. Field Hockey is the national sport of Pakistan; it has won three Gold medallions in the Olympic Games held in 1960, 1968, and 1984.

Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times held in 1971, 1978, 1982, and in 1994.

Cricket, however, is the most popular game across the country.
The cricket team (popular as Shaheen) has won the Cricket World Cup held in 1992; it had been runners-up once, in 1999, and co-hosted the tournament in 1987 and 1996.

Pakistan were runners-up in the inaugural World Twenty20 (2007) in South Africa and won the World Twenty20 in England in 2009. 

The A1 car of A1 Team Pakistan driven by the motorsport driver, Adam Khan.
In athletics, Abdul Khaliq participated in 1954 Asian Games and the 1958 Asian Games.
He won 34 international gold, 15 international silver and 12 bronze medals for Pakistan.

In squash, world-class players such as Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan won the World Open Squash Championship several times during their careers.
Jahangir Khan also won the British Open a record ten times.

Pakistan has competed many times at the Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting.
Pakistan's Olympic medal tally stands at 10 of which 8 were earned in hockey.
The Commonwealth Games and Asian Games medal tallies stand at 65 and 160 respectively.

At national level, polo is popular, with regular national events in different parts of the country. Boxing, billiards, snooker, rowing, kayaking, caving, tennis, contract bridge, golf and volleyball are also actively pursued, and Pakistan has produced regional and international champions in these sports.
Basketball enjoys regional popularity especially in Lahore and Karachi.

 

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